Saturday, February 19, 2011

Central Bank of India P.O. Exam., 2010

English Language
(Exam Held on 25-7-2010)

Directions—(Q. 1–15) Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the question.

A few weeks ago, a newspaper article quoted a well known scientist saying, “IT has destroyed Indian science”. One can speculate about the various ways in which the growth of the IT sector and other similar knowledge industries such as biotechnology has led to a decline in basic scientific research in India.

The most obvious reason is money; pay scales in IT and BT are much higher than one can aspire to in academia. The argument goes : why should a bright B. Tech. or M.Sc. student enroll in a Ph.D. programme when she can make a lot more money writing code ? Not only does a fresh IT employee make a lot more than a fresh M.Tech. student, her pay will rise much faster in IT than in academia. A professor’s pay at a government-run university, even after the Sixth Pay Commission, tops out at far less than a senior executive's salary in a major industry.

Second, the social status of IT and BT jobs equal or even exceed the social status of corresponding academic positions, since they are seen as knowledge industries, which plays to best and worst instincts of the societal order. As quintessential white collar professions, neither do they compel a successful entrepreneur to resort to violence and corruption, nor do they demand any physical labour. Unlike real estate or road construction, it is felt that IT workers can become rich while staying honest and sweat-free.

Assuming that the labour pool for academia and IT is roughly the same, the difference in our collective preferences biases the labour market towards IT and away from academia. Further, when the imbalance between IT and academia continues for years and even decades, a destructive loop, from academia’s point of view, is created. When our best and brightest take IT jobs over academic ones for a decade or more, faculty positions in our universities and research centres are no longer filled by the best candidates.

As faculty quality goes down, so does the capacity to train top-class graduate students who, after all, are teachers in training. In response to decreasing faculty quality, even those students who would otherwise choose an academic profession, decide to join industry or go abroad for their studies. These foreign trained graduates prefer to come back to corporate India—if at all they do come back—and the downward cycle replicates itself in each generation. In other words, academia is trapped within a perfect storm created by a combination of social and economic factors.

In this socio-economic calculus, the members of our societal classes should prefer an IT job to an academic one. Or, to put it another way, the knowledge economy, i.e., the creation of knowledge for profit, trumps the knowledge society, i.e., the creation of knowledge for its own sake or the sake of the greater good. As is said, “knowledge is power, but money is even more power.” Perhaps the scientist was alluding to this victory of capitalism over the pursuit of pure knowledge when he accused IT of having a negative influence on Indian science.

Surely, knowledge has become a commodity like any other and as a result, knowledge workers are like any other labourers, who will sell their wares to the highest bidder. One solution is to accept and even encourage the commoditization of knowledge; if so, Indian universities and research centres should copy their western counterparts by becoming more and more like corporations. These centres of learning should convert themselves into engines of growth. In this logic, if we increase academic salaries and research grants to match IT paycheques we will attract good people into academia, where, in any case, it is rumoured that a certain elusive feeling called ‘the quality of life’ is better.

1. According to the passage, what did the scientist actually mean when he said, “IT has destroyed Indian Science ?”
(A) The centres meant for Scientific research are being utilized by IT industries
(B) The IT industry does not employ people pursuing higher studies
(C) As information is readily available on the internet because of IT, there is no need to seek further information
(D) IT has distorted the truth as stated by Indian science
(E) The desire for money has overshadowed the search for knowledge
Ans : (B)

2. Which of the following is possibly the most appropriate title for the passage ?
(A) Is the Future of IT Bright ?
(B) The IT Industry and the World Economy
(C) Research and Academics – Losing the Battle Against IT
(D) Scientific Research and the Need for Well – Trained Faculty
(E) Information Technology and its Advantages
Ans : (C)

3. Why does the author say that knowledge has become a commodity ?
(A) As it is no longer desirable in any professional field
(B) As there are too many educational institutes in the country which do not provide quality education
(C) As knowledge is now available easily as compared to the past
(D) As knowledgeable people sell their services for the highest price possible
(E) Like commodities knowledge too becomes stale after a certain period
Ans : (D)

4. What, according to the author, is a destructive loop ?
(A) Many people quit their existing jobs to work in the IT industry which in turn leads to the downfall of the other industries
(B) The fact that the best minds do not want to become teachers and this in turn leads to good students seeking knowledge elsewhere
(C) The fact that people working in the IT industry do not pursue higher studies which in turn leads to the deterioration in quality of employees
(D) The unending use of resources by the IT industry leading to a dearth of resources in the country
(E) Less grants are being provided by the Government to academic institutes which in turn leads to poor quality students joining the same
Ans : (C)

5. Which of the following mentioned below is/are the author’s suggestion/s to promote interest in Indian academia ?
(1) Research centres should adopt the corporate culture as is done in the West
(2) Lessening the number of research grants given
(3) Making academic salaries equivalent to those paid in IT industries.
(A) Only (3)
(B) Only (1)
(C) Only (2) and (3)
(D) Only (1) and (3)
(E) None of these
Ans : (D)

6. Which of the following is NOT TRUE in the context of the passage ?
(1) It is believed that the quality of life is better when pursuing scientific research
(2) People currently seek knowledge only for the greater good of the society.
(3) Money is not perceived to be as powerful as knowledge.
(A) Only (1) and (3)
(B) Only (2)
(C) Only (1) and (2)
(D) Only (2) and (3)
(E) All (1), (2) and (3)
Ans : (D)

7. Which of the following, according to the author, are factors responsible for the declining interest in scientific research ?
(1) Slower progress of work in research
(2) Lesser monetary compensation in research related activities
(3) Societal perception towards research
(A) Only (1)
(B) Only (3)
(C) Only (2) and (3)
(D) Only (1) and 2)
(E) All (1), (2) and (3)
Ans : (C)

8. Which of the following is true about the perception towards IT jobs as given in the passage ?
(1) They are physically tiring.
(2) They are considered to be managerial level jobs.
(3) They require usage of dishonest means.
(A) Only (2)
(B) Only (1) and (2)
(C) Only (3)
(D) Only (2) and (3)
(E) All (1), (2) and (3) are true
Ans : (B)

Directions—(Q. 9–12) Choose the word/group of words which is MOST SIMILAR in MEANING to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.

(A) volume
(B) capability
(C) voltage
(D) quantity
(E) qualification
Ans : (B)

(A) referring
(B) breaking
(C) escaping
(D) imposing
(E) clinging
Ans : (A)

(A) visit
(B) contemplate
(C) remark
(D) argue
(E) regulate
Ans : (B)

(A) typical
(B) different
(C) necessary
(D) unique
(E) excellent
Ans : (D)

Directions—(Q. 13–15) Choose the word/group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in MEANING to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.

(A) soft
(B) dark
(C) dull
(D) vivid
(E) dim
Ans : (C)

(A) definite
(B) happy
(C) mysterious
(D) worthwhile
(E) remarkable
Ans : (A)

(A) used
(B) stale
(C) tired
(D) experienced
(E) aged
Ans : (B)

Directions—(Q. 16–20) Which of the phrases (A), (B), (C) and (D) given below each sentence should replace the word/phrase printed in bold in the sentence to make it grammatically correct ? If the sentence is correct as it is given and no correction is required, mark (E) as the answer.

16. The poor Brahmin led a hand to mouthful existence and could use any job which paid him a little—
(A) handful to mouthful existence
(B) hand to mouth existence
(C) handing for mouthful existing
(D) hand and mouth exist
(E) No correction required
Ans : (B)

17. In order earning decent living we need to have a good job which pays a substantial amount of money—
(A) earned decency life
(B) earning decency live
(C) earn a decent living
(D) earned decently life
(E) No correction required
Ans : (C)

18. We went to the famous restaurant to eat and were served piped hot food—
(A) served piping hotter
(B) serving pipe hot
(C) served piping hot
(D) serve pipe hotten
(E) No correction required
Ans : (C)

19. Akshay considered Suresh a complete pain in the neck as he kept asking baseless questions—
(A) paining in the neck
(B) painless neck
(C) painful necks
(D) pain in necking
(E) No correction required
Ans : (B)

20. I jump through hoop to finish this project in time but was not rewarded adequately—
(A) jumped through hoops
(B) jumping for hooping
(C) jumped on hoop
(D) jumping from hoop
(E) No correction required
Ans : (A)

Directions—(Q. 21–25) Each question below has two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Choose the set of words for each blank which best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

21. Adding to a growing body of research …… cutting back on sweetened beverages it is now found that drinking …… sugary drinks may help lower blood pressure.
(A) for, all
(B) sustaining, increased
(C) against, lesser
(D) behind, more
(E) supporting, fewer
Ans : (E)

22. The blame game for the air tragedy is already in full …… with the authorities involved making attempts to …… for themselves.
(A) sway, defend
(B) view, try
(C) fledged, protect
(D) swing, cover
(E) roll, hide
Ans : (D)

23. The actress, wearing a dark gray suit and open necked shirt, sat …… the proceedings looking nervous throughout, occasionally frowning as her lawyer …… with the judge.
(A) through, spoke
(B) on, argued
(C) for, addressed
(D) with, discussed
(E) along, lectured
Ans : (B)

24. It was an excellent social evening with people from all ……… of life getting a chance to let their hair ………
(A) areas, drop
(B) realms, flow
(C) arena, undone
(D) walks, down
(E) types, loose
Ans : (D)

25. There can be no denying the fact that in sports, star coaches have the …… to get something extra out of their ………
(A) apprehension, work
(B) ability, teams
(C) fear, member
(D) capability, house
(E) desirous, players
Ans : (B)

Directions—(Q. 26–30) Rearrange the following Six sentence (1), (2), (3), (4), (5) and (6) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph; then answer the questions given below them—
(1) It is therefore a contributing factor to the growth of landfills and waterway pollution, both of which are costly and energy intensive to solve.
(2) Making an effort to use those resources and avoid polystyrene ones can help to decrease your environmental impact.
(3) Non-biodegradable essentially means that any polystyrene that makes its way into a landfill will stay there indefinitely, never breaking down and returning to the earth.
(4) Polystyrene, as a product, is very convenient to use, but it has some important effects we should consider when making choices as consumers.
(5) While recycling polystyrene material can cushion the environmental blow of its use, alternatives are available that are created from renewable resources and biodegrade more readily.
(6) For example, while polystyrene has some excellent uses and is, technically, recyclable, it is not a substance that biodegrades.

26. Which of the following should be the LAST (SIXTH) sentence after rearrangement ?
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4
(E) 5
Ans : (B)

27. Which of the following should be the FOURTH sentence after rearrangement ?
(A) 5
(B) 6
(C) 1
(D) 4
(E) 2
Ans : (C)

28. Which of the following should be the FIRST sentence after rearrangement ?
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4
(E) 5
Ans : (D)

29. Which of the following should be the SECOND sentence after rearrangement ?
(A) 2
(B) 3
(C) 4
(D) 5
(E) 6
Ans : (E)

30. Which of the following should be the FIFTH sentence after rearrangement ?
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4
(E) 5
Ans : (E)

Directions—(Q. 31–40) Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error or idiomatic error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The letter of that part is the answer. If there is no error, the answer is (E). (Ignore errors of punctuation, if any).

31. Sugar-sweetened drinks does not (A) /pose any particular health risk, and (B) / are not a unique risk factor (C) / for obesity or heart disease (D) No error (E)
Ans : (A)

32. Airline managements should note (A) / that the ultimate passenger unfriendliness (B) / is to have their planes crash (C) / due to the adopted of unsafe procedures (D) No error (E)
Ans : (D)

33. Celebrating its ten long years (A) / in the industry, a private entertainment channel (B) / announce a series of (C) / programmes at a press conference (D) No error (E)
Ans : (C)

34. The award ceremony ended (A) / on a note of good cheer (B) / with audiences responding warmly (C) / to its line up of film (D) No error (E)
Ans : (C)

35. The actress was ordered for (A) / wear an alcohol monitoring bracelet and (B) / submit to random weekly drug testing after (C) / she failed to appear for a court date last week (D) No error (E)
Ans : (A)

36. Coaches have the advantage of (A) / draw on their personal experiences (B) / and providing their players (C) / with unique inputs (D) No error (E)
Ans : (B)

37. The actor loves to think (A) / never enjoys stick to one kind of role (B) / and finds it difficult to (C) / fulfil everyone’s expectations (D) No error (E)
Ans : (B)

38. A major computer security firm urged (A) / the social networking site to set up (B) / an early-warning system after hundreds of users were (C) / hit by a new wave of virus attacks (D) No error (E)
Ans : (E)

39. The finding may help doctors (A) / to give more personalised care to patients (B) / and to modify the amount of powerful drugs (C) / administered over their patients (D) No error (E)
Ans : (D)

40. The actress made a rare appearance (A) / at the party and was (B) / overheard talking in (C) / her next big project (D) No error (E)
Ans : (C)

Directions—(Q. 41–50) In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which ‘fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.

Hundreds of plants and animals are (…41…) every-day due to deforestation and urbanization, what might happen if this continues in the future ? The last mass extinction of plant and animal species occurred 65 million years ago with the Dinosaurs. In all, five mass extinctions have occurred and scientists (…42…) earth is in the sixth mass extinction. The world as it is now is threatened, including people, who are responsible for earth’s (…43…). Pesticides contaminating water; overharvesting of animals and plants; air pollution; illegal fishing and the clearing of land are direct results of urbanization and deforestation. People have (…44…) and damaged almost half of earth’s land, at a very unsustainable rate.

Global warming is having a serious impact as well. A six-degree Celsius increase in global temperature killed 95% of all species on Earth 251 million years ago. An increase of six-degrees Celsius is forecast this century if a change is not made to (…45…) the damage done to earth. Humans will be one of the 95% of species lost. Noticeable changes of global warming include migration (…46…) and the change in season timings. Migrating birds are migrating earlier, which in turn is causing them to hatch eggs and (…47…) young earlier than they did at the beginning of this century. While this is just the tip of the iceberg, many other (…48…) regarding the extinction of plant and animal species need addressing. It is more important now than ever before to pull our heads out of the sand and make changes for the (…49…) of the earth. Future generations are (…50…), as they are a species as well.

41. (A) killing
(B) alive
(C) born
(D) left
(E) lost
Ans : (E)

42. (A) speak
(B) told
(C) estimation
(D) believe
(E) consider
Ans : (D)

43. (A) shape
(B) development
(C) deterioration
(D) warmth
(E) expansion
Ans : (C)

44. (A) altered
(B) created
(C) produced
(D) made
(E) brought
Ans : (A)

45. (A) void
(B) dissipate
(C) augment
(D) reverse
(E) increase
Ans : (D)

46. (A) delay
(B) birds
(C) slowdown
(D) hasten
(E) acceleration
Ans : (E)

47. (A) spare
(B) bear
(C) destroy
(D) amend
(E) generation
Ans : (B)

48. (A) animals
(B) difficulty
(C) issues
(D) humans
(E) problem
Ans : (C)

49. (A) extinction
(B) better
(C) wealth
(D) stigma
(E) demand
Ans : (B)

50. (A) endangered
(B) threaten
(C) evaluated
(D) living
(E) compared
Ans : (A)